The opinion of the court was delivered by: S. Arthur Spiegel United States Senior District Judge
FINDINGS OF FACT, AND ORDER
This matter is before the Court for decision following a bench trial conducted on October 4, 2006, and continued until October 24, 2006. In rendering its decision on this matter, the Court has considered the testimony of the witnesses, the documents admitted into evidence, Defendants' Stipulation of Fact (doc. 36), Plaintiffs' Proposed Findings of Fact and Conclusions of Law (doc. 37), Defendants' Proposed Findings of Fact and Conclusions of Law (doc. 38), Plaintiffs' Proposed Rebuttal Findings of Fact and Conclusions of Law (doc. 42), and Defendants' Supplemental Proposed Findings of Fact and Conclusions of Law (doc. 43). For the reasons indicated herein, the Court ENTERS Judgment in favor of Plaintiffs on Counts One through Five of their contract and federal constitutional claims, and CONTINUES this matter for a hearing on damages.
In weighing the testimony of the witnesses, the Court evaluated the credibility of each witness, their interest in the outcome of the trial, their manner of testifying, and the extent to which such testimony was supported or contradicted by other credible evidence. Under Fed. R. Civ. P. 52, the Court has set forth its findings of fact and conclusions of law, below.
The decision rendered today follows a long and difficult dispute between the City of St. Bernard and its retired employees. The Court notes that both sides have been represented by very competent and well-prepared attorneys, who presented their cases well and acted in accordance with standards of professionalism and civility. The Court was further impressed with the sensitive position of the City of St. Bernard's law director, who took a position in the case adverse to the interests of his own father, a retiree of the City. In light of the nature of the case, it is to the credit of all parties that the trial on the merits proceeded in the spirit of cooperation.
In May 2003, the City of St. Bernard (hereinafter "City") informed its retired employees that it was suspending certain retirement benefits because of a legal opinion that payment of such benefits was illegal under Ohio law. In the Defendant City's view, "no public purpose is served by the extension of benefits to already retired employees, and therefore such benefits are illegal and public money cannot be expended for such purposes" (doc. 27).
Plaintiffs Frank Mayborg and Kenneth Davis, retired City police officers, Plaintiff Forrest Hudson, a retired City fire-fighter, and Plaintiff Terrance Hawley, a retired City service employee, filed suit in April 2004, alleging the City, the members of City Council, and the City Law Director unlawfully revoked and impaired their vested rights to the benefits they had been receiving and expected to receive from the City in exchange for their years of service to the City (doc. 4). On September 29, 2004, the Court certified the case as a class action, and defined the class of approximately 185 retired employees as:
All individuals formerly employed by the City of St. Bernard and who retired from the City of St. Bernard and have received certain retirement benefits from the City of St. Bernard and/or their surviving beneficiaries entitled to those retirement benefits (doc. 16).
During the course of the trial it became clear that there are three subgroups of retirees: 1) service department employees who qualified for the City program after becoming eligible to retire under the public employees retirement system ("PERS"), 2) police and fire retirees who retired prior to July 1, 1992, and 3) police and fire retirees who retired after July 1, 1992.
Plaintiffs' Amended Complaint asserts claims for (1) violation of the contract clauses of Article 1, Section 10 of the United States Constitution, and Section 28, Article II of the Ohio Constitution, (2) an illegal practice of denying and/or substantially interfering with vested retirement benefits, (3) denial of Plaintiffs' civil rights without due process, pursuant to 42 U.S.C. § 1983, (4) denial of Plaintiffs' substantive due process, (5) breach of contract under state law, and (6) promissory estoppel. Plaintiffs dropped a claim for violation of ERISA, and subsequently asserted three new claims in their proposed findings of facts and conclusions of law, which were neither listed in the Amended Complaint nor the final pretrial order: for breach of fiduciary duty, unjust enrichment, and for violation of the moral obligation doctrine (docs. 42, 43). Plaintiffs seek an injunction to restore the benefits, damages relating to the suspension of benefits, and attorneys' fees.
Defendants contend 1) Plaintiffs have no federal cause of action, 2) the state law claims should be dismissed for lack of jurisdiction, 3) the benefits as originally granted were illegal under Ohio law, 4) the benefits at issue were not vested, and 5) promissory estoppel is not applicable to municipalities performing governmental functions, under the Ohio Supreme Court's recent decision in Hortman v. City of Miamisburg, 110 Ohio St. 3d 194, 852 N.E.2d 716 (Ohio 2006). Defendants further argue Plaintiffs' claims asserted in their Rebuttal Findings of Fact and Conclusions of law, for breach of fiduciary duty, unjust enrichment, and for violation of the moral obligation doctrine, should be dismissed under Moore v. Fenex, Inc., 809 F.2d 297 (6th Cir. 1987).
The core issue in this case is whether Plaintiffs were unlawfully deprived, in violation of the Constitution and/or state law, of vested rights they had in retirement benefits, or whether Defendants are correct that the benefits were illegal. Resolution of this question is determinative of Plaintiffs' claims.
II. Background and History
The facts of this case are long, and in some respects dense. Therefore, the Court finds it appropriate to briefly summarize the historical background prior to enumerating its findings.
Prior to public employee collective bargaining under Ohio law, with the enactment of Ohio Rev. Code § 4117 in 1984, the City and its employees would negotiate wage and benefits and then embody the agreement in the form of an ordinance. The starting point for this case is the year 1961, when the City established by Ordinance No. 4-1961 no-cost enrollment in the City's health care program for qualified employees. In order to qualify for the program, employees had to have completed five years of service and be eligible to retire under one of two state pension programs: the state police and fire program, or the public employees retirement system ("PERS"). From the inception, the City reimbursed PERS participants for the cost of premiums, while the state police and fire program had no premiums. According to Plaintiffs, these original benefits of no-cost medical insurance coverage were hard-fought through negotiation with the City, and were granted by ordinance in exchange for their employment with the City. According to Defendants, these original benefits were only applicable to the narrow class of "present active employees" as of the year 1961, under the express language of the Ordinance.
In January 1985, the City learned that its insurance coverage overlapped with state pension medical insurance programs, and therefore that it could save money, approximately $130,000.00, by repealing all overlapping coverage. The City therefore enacted an Ordinance authorizing the Auditor "to discontinue any medical coverage where there is coverage provided by the State of Ohio pension funds and systems." In Defendants' view, the 1985 Ordinance cancelled all prior ordinances; while Plaintiffs view this as merely a change in the mechanism meeting the City's enduring 1961 commitment.
In June 1985, the City passed Ordinance No. 24, 1985, noting in the preamble its previous action in terminating overlapping coverage, and directing the Mayor to execute a trust fund in accordance with Section 501(c)(9) of the Internal Revenue Code (hereinafter "C-9" Trust). The purpose of the fund, on its face, was to reimburse qualified City retirees for costs not paid for by the state insurance plan. At the trial, the parties indicated that the sorts of benefits at issue were physicals or prescription costs above the state allotment. Defendants argue that the 1985 Ordinances were illegal extensions of retroactive benefits to already retired employees; Plaintiffs view the ordinances as adopted to preserve the status quo of no-cost health benefits for retirees. In 1985 the City also passed Ordinance 25, 1985, to ensure premium reimbursement for service department employees retiring under PERS.
In 1986, the City and its employees completed their first collective bargaining agreements. Such agreements included negotiated terms for C-9 benefits. Subsequent agreements continued to do so, and those applicable to service employees included premium reimbursement.
In 1992, the state police and fire-fighter health insurance changed such that retired police officers and fire-fighters had to start paying a premium, similar to that which service employees had been paying under the PERS system. The City passed Ordinance No. 49-1992, granting retroactive reimbursement to qualified city police and fire-fighter retirees who had retired prior to July 1, 1992.
Having summarized the general background, the Court now proceeds to its more detailed factual findings:
1. Pursuant to Ordinance No. 4, 1961, the Council of the City of St. Bernard promised its present active employees at the time of their retirement, hospital and medical insurance coverage similar to that presently furnished by the City to members in active service, provided that the employee completed five years of continuous active service immediately preceding retirement and was eligible for retirement benefits under either PERS or Police and Fire Pension Fund. (Plaintiffs' Exhibit A).
2. The Retirees have offered evidence that then current employees of the City received the benefit upon retirement.
3. The City has proffered no evidence that pre-1961 retirees received a benefit they had not earned.
4. The practice of the City has been to provide this benefit of no cost health insurance upon retirement to all City employees. Mr. Walter St. Clair, Auditor for the City, has acknowledged that the City has had a history of providing no-cost health insurance to its retirees.
5. This past practice is evidence of the City's original intent to provide this benefit prospectively to its current employees.
6. Plaintiff Frank Mayborg, a retired patrolman from the City's Police Department, described the wage and hour negotiations with the City prior to public employee bargaining. Members of the Wage Committee of the Fraternal Order of Police, composed of two patrolmen and one supervisor, would negotiate with the Finance Committee of City Council. Once agreement was reached between the two committees, the Wage Committee would present the proposed contract to the rank and file members of the Fraternal Order of Police. Following an approval vote of the membership, the Wage Committee would report agreement to the Finance Committee. The Finance Committee would then report the agreement to the full Council. The Council would then memorialize that agreement in an ordinance.
7. Mr. Mayborg testified that during the almost twenty-two years he served on the Wage Committee, he regularly raised retirement benefits in wage negotiations with the councilmembers on the Finance Committee. He testified that councilmembers on the Finance Committee repeatedly assured him that the City would continue to provide no-cost health insurance to retirees, because the City "takes care of its own".
8. The City has a history of substituting the means of delivering the same benefit to its employees and retirees. See, e.g., Ordinance No. 4, 1961.
9. Pursuant to Ordinance No. 46, 1984, the Council of the City of St. Bernard substituted medical insurance coverage to its retirees where there was coverage provided by the Police and Fire Pension Fund and/or PERS. The Council stated in the preamble of the Ordinance that the Police and Fire Pension Fund and PERS were providing the same medical coverage at no cost as was being provided by the City. (Plaintiffs' Exhibit G).
10. In exchange for the substitution of the hospital and medical insurance provided through the statewide pension systems, the City passed two ordinances intended to offset the added costs to retirees to assure the delivery of the no-cost health insurance retirement benefit.
11. Pursuant to Ordinance No. 24, 1985, the Council of the City of St. Bernard established a fund for the purpose of reimbursing qualified City retirees and their dependents for the health care costs they incurred which were not paid by the health insurance provided by either the Police and Fire-fighter's Pension Fund and/or PERS. Pursuant to Ordinance No. 24, 1985, the Council of the City of St. Bernard directed the Mayor to establish a C-9 Trust. (Plaintiffs' Exhibit I).
12. The C-9 Trust was not a new benefit for retirees of the City, but rather continued the no-cost hospital and medical insurance benefit retirees had been receiving from the City. In addition, the C-9 Trust, by its express definition of "employee," was intended for current retirees as well as current employees upon their meeting the eligibility criteria and retiring from City employment.
13. Mr. St. Clair testified that the C-9 Trust Fund was intended to substitute one type of benefit for another type of benefit retirees had been receiving. The City ...